Siloadammen

21/01/2015

Notat til søndagens tekst: Joh 9,1-7 og 35b-38

Siloadammen. Foto: Arne Berge 2007

Siloadammen. Foto: Arne Berge 2007

Så sa han: «Gå og vask deg i Siloa-dammen!» Siloa tyder utsend. Mannen gjekk dit og vaska seg, og då han kom att, kunne han sjå. (Joh 9,7)

Delar av Siloadammen frå nytestamentleg tid er i dag graven fram og gjort tilgjengeleg i Davidsbyen i Jerusalem. På Jesu tid låg denne dammen innanfor bymurene. Dette var kanskje den einaste staden med friskt og rennande vatn. Vatnet blei ført fram til dammen gjennom Hiskias tunnel frå Gihonkjelda i Kedrondalen.

I eit tidlegare notat har eg skrive om Rennande vatn i Davidsbyen:

«Den vanlege oppfatninga er at Siloadammen hadde ein viktig funksjon som reinsingsbad (miqveh) for folk som skulle opp til tempelet, ikkje minst når det i dei tre jødiske høgtidene kom tusenar av pilegrimar til byen.» (Les meir)

Bibelteksten i Joh 9 handlar om ein mann som var født blind og som fekk synet igjen ved eit møte med han som er lyset i verda (Joh 8,12). Mannen møtte mykje motgang og vanskar fordi helbredinga hadde skjedd på ein sabbat. Forteljinga sluttar med at han møter Jesus igjen og blir ein disippel av han. På den måten blir bibelteksten eit møte med ein mann som ser lyset i dobbelt forstand.

Dette notatet frå 2008 er nå i 2015 oppdatert, først og fremst i forhold til nye tekstrekker og ny bibelomsetjing. Teksten er nå plassert på 4. søndag i openberringstida, mens den tidlegare høyrde til på det som då heitte 20. søndag etter pinse.

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Frå det hasmoneiske Jerusalem

03/12/2013

… none of the Hasmonean city’s buildings have been uncovered so far …

Josefus har gitt oss gode skildringar av Jerusalem i den hasmoneiske tidsperioden, men det har hittil vore få eller ingen større arkeologiske funn frå denne tida. Det er derfor interessant at israelske arkeologar nå presenterer det som skal vera funn etter ein større bygning frå byrjinga av 2. hundreår f.Kr.

Bygningsrestane er funne like sør for Gamlebyen, på Giv´ati parkeringsplassen øverst i Davidsbyen.

Her er pressemeldinga frå Israel Antiquities Authority:

Josephus wrote about Hasmonean Jerusalem but it is only now that remains of a building are being exposed from this period in the city’s history

In recent months remains of an impressive building from the Hasmonean period (second century BCE) are being unearthed in excavations the Israel Antiquities Authority is directing in the Giv‘ati parking lot, located in the City of David in the Walls Around Jerusalem National Park. The excavations are sponsored by the «Friends of City of David».

The building stands c. 4 meters high and covers an area of c. 64 sq. m. The building’s broad walls (more than one meter thick) are made of roughly hewn limestone blocks that were arranged as headers and stretchers, a construction method characteristic of the Hasmonean period.
Although numerous pottery vessels were discovered inside the building, it was mainly the coins that surprised the researchers. These indicated the structure was erected in the early second century BCE and continued into the Hasmonean period, during which time significant changes were made inside it.

According to Dr. Doron Ben Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets, the excavation directors on behalf to the Israel Antiquities Authority, “The importance of this discovery is primarily because of the conspicuous paucity of buildings from the Hasmonean city of Jerusalem in archaeological research, despite the many excavations that have been conducted to date. Apart from several remains of the city’s fortifications that were discovered in different parts of Jerusalem, as well as pottery and other small finds, none of the Hasmonean city’s buildings have been uncovered so far, and this discovery bridges a certain gap in Jerusalem’s settlement sequence. The Hasmonean city, which is well-known to us from the historical descriptions that appear in the works of Josephus, has suddenly acquired tangible expression”.

Via BiblePlaces Blog som også har med bilde frå IAA og ei oversikt over sine omtalar av andre arkeologiske funn frå det same området.


Tekstfunn ved Gihon

23/08/2013

Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority Det er gjort funn nokre svært gamle tekstfunn ved Gihonkjelda i den eldste delen av Jerusalem. Israelske arkeologar antyder at tekstane er frå ca 700 f.Kr. og at ein Sakarja som er nemnt i Andre Krønikebok (2. Krøn 20,14), kan vera nemnt i eit av tekstfragmenta.

Bildet viser det aktuelle fragmentet. Foto: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority.

Forrige helg sende Israel Antiquities Authority ut denne pressemeldinga:

2700 Year-Old Inscription Found in Archaeological Excavations in the City of David

Archaeological excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority in the area of the Gihon Spring in the City of David, in the Walls around Jerusalem National Park, have unearthed a layer of rich finds including thousands of broken pottery shards, clay lamps and figurines. Most intriguing is the recent discovery of a ceramic bowl with a partially preserved inscription in ancient Hebrew. While not complete, the inscription presents us with the name of a seventh century BCE figure, which resembles other names known to us from both the Biblical and archaeological record (see examples below) and providing us with a connection to the people living in Jerusalem at the end of the First Temple period. This fascinating find will be presented at Megalim’s Annual Archaeological Conference which will take place on Thursday, August 29th in the City of David.
The most similar name to our inscription is Zechariah the son of Benaiah, the father of the Prophet Jahaziel. The name Zechariah the son of Benaiah appears in 2 Chronicles 20:14 where it states that Jahaziel, son of Zechariah, son of Benaiah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, prophesized before the Biblical King Jehoshaphat before the nation went off to war against the ancient kingdoms of Ammon and Moab.
Israel Antiquity Authority archaeologists Dr. Joe Uziel and Nahshon Zanton, who discovered the bowl while excavating remains associated with the First Temple period destruction, explained that the letters inscribed on the shard likely date to the 8-7th centuries BCE, placing the production of the bowl sometime between the reign of Hezekiah and the destruction of Jerusalem under King Zedekiah. The archaeologists also explained that the inscription was engraved on the bowl prior to firing, indicating that the inscription originally adorned the rim of the bowl in its entirety, and was not written on a shard after the vessel was broken.
While the purpose of the inscription on the bowl is unclear, archaeologists have posited that the bowl may have contained an offering, likely given by the individual whose name was inscribed on the bowl, or alternatively given to him.

Inscription Analysis
The first letter of the ceramic bowl’s partially preserved inscription in ancient Hebrew script is broken and is therefore difficult to read, but appears to be the letter ר. The next three letters יהו constitute the theophoric suffix (the component in which the name of the deity appears as part of the first name, such as Yirme-yahu and Eli-yahu, etc). These letters are followed by בנ (the son of) after which appears the patronymic name composed of the three letters בנה. According to archaeologists Uziel and Zanton, “If we consider the possibility that we are dealing with an unvowelized or ‘defective’ spelling of the name בניה (Benaiah), then what we have before us is the name «…ריהו בן בניה»

Many of the first names mentioned in the Bible contained the theophoric component יהו, as is the case of this inscription from the City of David. Besides the biblical references, other examples of this have also been found in archaeological excavations, written on a variety of objects such as seals, bullae, pottery vessels or even carved on rock. Noteworthy among the many names that end with the theophoric suffix יהו are several prominent examples that were previously discovered in City of David by Professor Yigal Shiloh, such as Gemar-yahu the son of Shaphan, Bena-yahu the son of Hoshayahu, etc. which were also found in the destruction layer and the ruins of the Babylonian conquest.

For information on the Megalim-City of David Annual Archaeological Conference please call *6033 or visit http://www.cityofdavid.org.il

Click here to download high resolution pictures: 
1. Pottery Sherd of a Bowl from the end of the First Temple Period, bearing the inscription «ryhu bn bnh». Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority
2. Various finds from the fill layer of the end of First Temple period: oil lamps, LMLKstamped handles and female figurines. Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority

For more details contact Meyrav Shay, Public Information, Israel Antiquities Authority at 052-4284408, meyrav@israntique.org.il

(via PaleoJudaica)


Vatn i Jerusalem i GTs tid

07/09/2012

Det er nyleg funne store reservoar for vatn frå gamaltestamentleg tid like ved tempelhøgda i Jerusalem. Funna blei presenterte på ein konferanse i byen i går kveld.

Vatn er viktig. Jerusalem ligg høgt oppe i fjella i ein region med varmt klima. Sikker tilgang på vatn har alltid vore heilt avgjerande. Det har lenge vore kjent at Gihonkjelda i gamal tid var sentral for forsyninga av vatn, både i krig og i fred. Nå er det altså gjort arkeologiske funn som viser at også andre «kjelder» har vore viktige i byen sitt liv.

Funna er gjort i samband med det arkeologiske arbeidet i det gamle avløpssystemet. Det har dei siste åra blitt arbeidd mykje med «hovudvegen» med tilhøyrande avløpstunnel som gjekk ned Tyropoiondalen frå tempelhøgda til Siloadammen. Både vegen (trappa) og avløpstunnelen ligg i dag under bakkenivå.

IAA har lagt ut ei pressemelding om saka:

A Public Water Reservoir Dating to the First Temple Period has been Exposed for the First Time next to the Western Wall (September 2012)

According to Eli Shukron, excavation director on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “It is now absolutely clear that the Jerusalem’s water consumption during the First Temple period was not solely based on the output of the Gihon Spring, but that it also relied on public reservoirs

(…)

The excavation, during the course of which the reservoir was discovered, is part of an archaeological project whereby the entire drainage channel of Jerusalem dating to the Second Temple period is being exposed. The channel runs north along the City of David spur, from the Siloam Pool to a point beneath Robinson’s Arch. The route of the channel was fixed in the center of the main valley that extends from north to south the length of the ancient city, parallel to the Temple Mount. In his description of Jerusalem in the Second Temple period, Josephus refers to the valley by its Greek name “Tyropoeon”, which scholars believe means “Valley of the Cheese-makers”. Another interpretation identifies the valley with the “Valley of the Decision”, mentioned in the Book of Joel.

It became apparent while excavating the channel that during the construction of this enormous engineering enterprise its builders had to remove earlier structures that were situated along the route of the channel and “pass through” existing rock-hewn installations that were located along it. An extraordinary installation that was exposed in recent weeks is a large water reservoir treated with several layers of plaster, which probably dates to the First Temple period.

The reservoir has an approximate capacity of 250 cubic meters and is therefore one of the largest water reservoirs from the First Temple period to be discovered so far in Jerusalem, and this was presumably a reservoir that was used by the general public

(…)

According to Dr. Yuval Baruch, archaeologist in charge of the Jerusalem Region of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “Upon completion of the excavations along the route of the drainage channel, the IAA will examine possibilities of incorporating the impressive water reservoir in the planned visitors’ path.

Les meir


Tre V-ar i Jerusalem

12/12/2011

Det er nyleg gjort eit uforklarleg arkeologisk funn i den eldste delen av Jerusalem. Arkeologar har funn tre 50 cm lange merke forma som V i eit golv på grunnfjellsnivå. Funnet er gjort nær Gihonkjelda. Det er visstnok foreløpig ingen teori blant fagfolka om kva dette kan vera restar etter.

Archaeologists stumped by ancient markings found under Jerusalem

Israeli diggers who uncovered a complex of rooms carved into the bedrock in the oldest section of the city recently found the markings: Three “V’’ shapes cut next to each other into the limestone floor of one of the rooms, about 2 inches (5 centimeters) deep and 20 inches (50 centimeters) long. There were no finds to offer any clues pointing to the identity of who made them or what purpose they served.

The archaeologists in charge of the dig know so little that they have been unable even to posit a theory about their nature, said Eli Shukron, one of the two directors of the dig.

“The markings are very strange, and very intriguing. I’ve never seen anything like them,” Shukron said.

(…)

It is possible, the dig’s archaeologists say, that when the markings were made at least 2,800 years ago the shapes might have accommodated some kind of wooden structure that stood inside them, or they might have served some other purpose on their own. They might have had a ritual function or one that was entirely mundane. Archaeologists faced by a curious artifact can usually at least venture a guess about its nature, but in this case no one, including outside experts consulted by Shukron and the dig’s co-director, archaeologists with decades of experience between them, has any idea.

Les meir og sjå bilete


Nye arkeologiske funn i Jerusalem

09/09/2011

Det blir stadig gjort nye arkeologiske funn i Jerusalem. Men forskarane er ikkje einige om koss dei skal tolkast.

Denne veka har det vore ein konferanse i Jerusalem om koss nokre av dei nyaste arkeologiske funna i byen skal tolkast. Det dreier seg blant anna om utgravingane i Davidsbyen, om bakgrunnen for Hiskias tunnel og om den gamle «hovudvegen» (med tilhøyrande avløpstunnel) frå tempelhøgda ned mot Siloadammen.

Her er nokre hovudavsnitt frå informasjonen som blei sendt ut på førehand, henta frå Arutz Sheva:

City of David Conference Slated to Overturn Popular Theories
New discoveries and research change the understanding of Jerusalem.

(…) Events of the 10th Century BCE have been in the public and academic eyes in recent years. Two key protagonists in this discussion will face off by addressing different aspects of their research which directly and indirectly relate to David and Solomon’s Jerusalem.

Prof. Israel Finkelstein (Tel Aviv University) will analyze several major structures generally considered to be hard evidence of David’s City. His surgical analysis stone by stone and confrontation of academic paper by academic paper will certainly shake up and perhaps demolish conventional assumptions, throwing a stumbling block in front of easy explanations and diagrams.

Taking the other side of this debate, Prof. Yosef Garfinkel (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) will present a brand-new median theory of the Judean Kingdom’s origins and historical precedence based on his recent excavations at Elah Fortress – Khirbet Qeiyafa, overlooking the Elah Valley where David and Goliath fought. Garfinkel believes the mighty 10th century BCE fortifications, extensive pottery, carbon-14 analysis, ancient writing, text-related features, and other findings of his four excavation seasons now shed new light on other sites and together draw a picture of a regional polity in this region and this period which cannot be ignored.

“Hezekiah’s Tunnel” is a watchword amongst visitors to Jerusalem who come to walk this ancient water tunnel, and learn about the famous inscription carved into the mountain. It is popularly associated with Hezekiah’s preparations for an expected onslaught by Sennacherib of Assyria, discussed extensively in the Bible. Both Prof. Ronnie Reich (University of Haifa) and Dr. Eli Shukron (Israel Antiquities Authority) on the one hand and well-known researcher Mr. Asher Grosbard on the other will each present incredibly well researched positions showing new insights into the text, a close examination of water channel features ignored by most researchers. Each side will offer to the audience opposing and original conclusions as to who built the tunnel and when. Watch the fireworks!

Prof. Gabriel Barkay (Bar Ilan University) was part of a survey team decades ago working the ancient necropolis of the Mount of Olives, and offers a penetrating analysis and well documented parallels to interpret and date the famous “Tomb of Pharaoh’s Daughter.”

Finally, a tremendous milestone and accomplishment was reached by excavating 550 meters of an ancient street and drainage channel running the entire length of the City of David and reaching under the Old City walls to the deepest of the Temple Mount’s foundations. The by-now famous golden bell ornament will be displayed. A circle of excavations from the 1800s and today will be closed, ably demonstrated by the excavators Reich and Shukron.

Prof. Reich has a unique fluency in old and forgotten reports. When it comes to the City of David he has read each one of the hundreds of academic articles about the city and its inscriptions in their original publications, spanning 150 years, published in several languages. Several of his discoveries and theories come from this comprehensive view, stitching together little details overlooked even by famed excavatos such as Dame Kathleen Kenyon. As the excavator of this drainage tunnel together with Dr. Shukron, together with his earlier work with Yaacov Bilig (IAA) in the section alongside the Western Wall, no one is better positioned to recreate and share with the listeners a view of this tremendous engineering feat of 2,000 years ago.

Les meir

(via PaleoJudaica)


Tunnel ved tempelhøgda II

05/02/2011

Her er nøktern og informativ informasjon om dreneringstunnelen som er graven fram i området mellom tempelhøgda og Siloadammen i Jerusalem.

Det er Caspari Media Review 03.02.2011 som formidlar denne teksten frå avisa Ma’ariv:

An ancient drainage tunnel running the length of the Tyropoeon Valley has recently been cleared of dirt and refuse accumulated over the course of 2,000 years, allowing body-height access for the first time since its discovery. The channel is located beneath the main paved and stepped road which traversed Jerusalem in those days, passing alongside the Western Wall in the north and down to the Siloam Pool in the southern portion of the City of David. Neither the road nor the channel pass beneath the Temple Mount itself.

Sjå tidlegare notat om tunnelen her.


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